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创造和照顾你的本土花园

Create & Care

Planning and planting your garden and getting your California native plants off to a good start is the first fun step in creating your landscape. Long term care, sometimes called “maintenance” is more about connecting and engaging with your garden than working through a list of chores. 随着本地植物的生长,花园开始成为一个整体, 而不是部分的总和, 你的参与变成了一个管理者和参与者. 你要照料花园,而不是维护它. 遵循这些简单的指导方针,成功和享受在你的本土植物花园.

A little tip pruning of this Artemisia nesiotica (Island sagebrush) comes with the added benefit of aromatherapy. 365bet娱乐网址、参与和享受.

Site Prep

Soil Moisture: 在开始任何景观花园之前, you need to know that the soil is moist on the day of planting, 当你完成的时候,你可以方便地给植物或者整个区域浇水. 这可能涉及到洒水系统,但在许多情况下,手浇水就足够了. 因为本地人效率很高, consider using a portable line of mini-sprinklers connected to a garden hose rather than installing a complicated irrigation system, 在建国初期. 

Weeds: 在一个全新的地方,长出健康的杂草是土壤支持植物生长的好迹象. 你需要根除它们, 并制定控制杂草的策略, 尤其是在头几个月. 除草的方法有很多, 包括机械(切割或挖掘), 化学(除草剂), or biological control such as solarization (killing them under a hot tarp) or by turning out a herd of goats. 请向当地司法部门查询山羊的情况. 如果地上没有杂草, 或者杂草生长得非常稀疏, it may be an indicator of difficult site conditions or poor soil.

Varmints: Deer, gophers, rabbits, squirrels, 甚至某些家养的狗和猫也能对景观造成广泛的破坏, 尤其是一个全新的. 如果你相信附近有食草动物或其他会引起骚动的动物,它们可能很快就会来拜访你, 在栽种花园前,你应安排控制或排除它们.

Soil Prep

修改或不修改: 因为本地植物对水分和养分的吸收效率很高, many landscapers believe that no soil amendment should be used. 另一些人认为,一点点有机覆盖物, 在种植洞中与当地土壤混合, 会帮助工厂建立起来吗. 对修正案的使用没有硬性的、快速的规定. All agree that you must choose plants that will eventually root into the native soil and thrive under the conditions of the site, 因为改变整个地区的土壤来种植所有的植物是不现实的. 如果你选择修改种植洞,使用高质量,无杂草,有机护根物(i.e.; composted green waste), approximately one-third mulch to two-thirds native soil by volume. 生命之树苗圃 plants are grown in a mix that promotes rooting into the native soils on the planting site.

Fertilizer: 如果土壤贫瘠, 或者缺乏表土, you can blend a balanced fertilizer into the area to be planted. 对于本地人来说,一半的力量就足够了. Many people prefer organic fertilizers because they also contain beneficial organisms and humus that add “life” to the soil. 当土壤温度达到70°F时,植物可以很容易地获得养分, 因此,当土壤寒冷时,化肥在冬天将不是很有用. Organic fertilizers are slower to show effects in the plant, but nutrients are available at a steady rate over a longer period. 使用化肥也有一个缺点, 特别是当它真的不需要的时候:杂草会更强壮,数量更多.

Plants from 生命之树苗圃 are raised with the proper nutrient balance to be healthy and vigorous, 而不是对商业肥料“上瘾”. This insures that they will not go into “withdrawal” in your landscape.

Mycorrhizae: 明显My-co-rye-zee, this term describes the beneficial fungi in the soil that assist plants in the uptake of water and nutrients. 真菌就像根系的一部分,使植物更强壮地抵御干旱和疾病, and help it extract the necessary plant foods even in very poor soils. 菌根对本地植物非常重要, and the fungi are usually missing in soils on graded or altered sites. 来自生命之树苗圃的植物在其根系统中使用高质量的菌根生产.

市场上有许多土壤添加剂都声称含有菌根真菌. Only a few are really effective; the properties of the remainder are questionable. Landscapers should be wary of snake oil mycorrhizae products on the market.

对水的需求e 种植区内的原生植物与邻近干渴的草皮区不同. 应避免这种不相容的种植方式.

Irrigation: 如果土壤干燥,你应该预先灌溉. 如果你是在旱季种植, you can probably sprout a crop of weeds by pre-irrigating and then control them by spraying an herbicide a few weeks before your planting date. 如果你在冬天或春天种植,土壤很可能会被雨水滋润. 这些是最好的种植条件. 

Planting

Season: 种植本地植物的理想季节是雨季:秋天到春天. Fall planting takes advantage of all the winter rain and allows the optimal amount of time for roots to establish. 冬季种植很好, 但有时土壤太湿或地面太冷,不适合早期种植. 春季种植也很成功, 不过,随着雨季结束,温暖的天气即将来临,需要一些注意. 土壤正在变暖,日照时间在增加,更多的雨水可能即将到来. 如果你在晚春种植, you will need to pay close attention during the first weeks of summer, 因为这些植物还没有生根, moist soil. Summer planting can be achieved in areas of mild weather near the coast, in the shade, 或者更小心的内陆. 夏末(8 / 9月)种植是一种挑战,尤其是在内陆地区. 你最好等到10月中旬, 当天气和土壤比较凉爽,雨水即将来临的时候.

Technique: It’s all about the hole you dig and the way you handle the live plant. 一般来说,洞应该比植物的根球大. An old rule of thumb is “twice as wide and half again as deep.” Make sure the sidewalls of the hole are not smooth like a bathtub. Roots will be more likely to penetrate the soil outside the hole and won’t coil round and round in the hole if you make rough, 不规则表面墙壁. 有了这个超大的洞,你会在旁边有一堆泥土,叫做回填土. 打碎大土块,移走大石块. 你可以在回填区混合三分之一的有机改良剂和三分之二的土壤, 如果你愿意,也可以在混合物中加入有机肥料. Put water in the hole and watch how fast it percolates into the soil. 如果水停留了好几个小时,你就知道你有粘土了.

Estimate or measure the height of the plant’s root ball and build a little mound in the bottom of the hole, so that when the root ball is set atop the mound in the hole, the collar (the spot the main stem meets the soil) will end up being about one inch higher than the surrounding grade.

将植物从容器中翻转过来,轻轻将其取出. 抓住滑出的根球. 用双手捧着它. 避免用树干或茎托起植株. 找一个有吸引力的正面或“脸”的工厂,如果定位问题, 然后把它放在洞里, 用眼睛观察领子,确保在更换回填后领子是高的和干的. 确保植物是笔直和像样的.

开始替换回填(修改或没有,这是你的决定)到洞周围的根. Tamp it down and firm it with your fingers or a little stick, but do not pound it down with the shovel handle or stomp on it. 你可以在填洞的同时加水,这样所有的回填都能保持湿润. 填好种植孔,确保领子没有被埋没.

用多余的回填, form a basin by building a berm well outside the dimensions of the hole so that rainwater and irrigation water will be concentrated into the root zone.

Add organic mulch approximately 1/2” deep in the area inside the berm so that the edges of the root ball are no longer exposed. The collar should still be visible slightly higher than the mulch. 

Watering In: Each plant should be watered as you replace backfill in the hole, 或者在盆里装满足够的水,让水浸透到洞的底部. 你不能依靠一个喷头洒水系统来第一次彻底浇灌一个新种植的植物.

这种曼扎尼塔种植有两个护堤,以集中雨水和灌溉到根区.

野花种子混合: 所有的植物都种好后,你可以在整个地区播种野花种子. 因为花是季节性的,你必须在秋天、冬天或早春播种. 种子将随着凉爽季节的雨水发芽, 这些植物整个冬天都会生长, 这些花将在春天盛开.

Simply scatter the seed with the old “feeding the chickens” toss, 把种子横着撒在地上. Caution; it is very easy to sow too much seed. 测试你的技术. 种子在地上的间隔应该是均匀的,大约2-3英寸. You can lightly rake the area to cover the seeds just under the surface, 或者涂一层薄薄的清洁液, organic mulch, 如下所述.

建立时期

Watering: 在第一个旱季, you should water to provide for healthy plant survival and growth, 并鼓励深根. 一般来说,你应该大约每一周或10天浇一次水. 这就是所谓的间隔. 无论你是否用手浇水, with a portable drag line or with a permanent sprinkler system, you need to apply enough water for deep percolation into the soil. The length of time that the sprinklers are on is called the duration. Watering at long intervals (infrequent irrigation) with long durations is much more effective than irrigating using frequent intervals and short durations.

全自动灌溉系统中使用的许多现代灌溉控制器被称为“智能”计时器. 它们可以通过编程来识别雨天, 通常还包括监测土壤湿度的传感器. Some have special operating modes for native plants and include adaptations 在建国初期.

A mini-sprinkler applies water very slowly, approx 1/4″ per hour. 水滴非常小,水有效地渗透到地下. Use care not to wet the leaves for prolonged periods during hot weather. 根据风向调整气流. If you see mist rising from the sprinkler head, turn the water down.

Mulching: Apply clean; weed free, 将堆肥好的有机覆盖物覆盖到植物周围的区域, 或者是整个网站,如果可行的话. 这将有助于冷却土壤, 保持珍贵的土壤水分, 尽量减少杂草, 加强植物的生长. 避免“绿色”(新鲜)木屑和热肥料产品. An inexpensive and sustainable alternative to the commercial products like bark or shavings would be composted urban green waste. 适用于晚春和早秋. 

This chamise (groundcover form) has been lightly pruned to reveal the rocks and shape the plant in a natural fashion. 而不是覆盖在裸地上的覆盖物.

Fertilizer: 大多数本地植物都是凉季种植的. It is more important to build long-term soil health than to periodically and artificially pump up the plants with commercial fertilizer. If the plants need a little boost because the soil is particularly poor, 在凉爽季节(10月至5月)使用通用肥料(最好是有机肥料). 在仲夏施用一次光照可以帮助植物为秋季生长做好准备. 对于本地植物,袋子上建议的比例可以降低到一半. Remember, weeds also benefit from the plant foods you apply. Use fertilizer around each plant rather than spreading it over bare soil.

As noted above, Tree of Life plants readily adapt to their new homes in the landscape, 因为它们在苗圃生产中没有过度施肥. You can check the ratio of branches and leaves to roots plus the internodes (the stem length between leaf shoots) to determine if the plant has been properly fed in the nursery. 生命之树总是能通过考验. 

最初的修剪: Very little pruning is required during the first year establishment period. Fast growing plants like the sages might benefit from a little tip pruning after flowering to provide good shape. 

故障排除: 在头几个月要注意的事情:干燥的植物或过度浇水的植物(水管理), 破坏打地鼠, rabbits, 地松鼠和其他植物捕食者, 虫害,包括蚜虫, thrips, scale, whitefly, 蜗牛和蛞蝓, 以及植物病害(通常由涝渍土壤引起), over-watering).

维护与保养

Watering:

这是一个明显的迹象,说明你给你的花园浇水太多了!

本地植物比传统的(外来的)花园植物需要更少的水. In many situations, plantings can get by on seasonal rainfall alone. 但在大多数景观环境中, dry season irrigations will maintain the plants green and healthy and keep the leaves turgid (full of water).

灌溉时间的间隔取决于你的气候和土壤类型,and the duration (the length of time you leave the sprinklers on) will be governed by how readily your soil will absorb the water. 你需要长时间、长时间间隔地浇水,这样才能保持一致, 深入水分到根区. 不要让地面在夏天长时间保持潮湿, 因为这会促进疾病. Avoid overhead irrigation (wetting the leaves for a long time) during the hot part of the day in the warm season.

在工厂建立之后, 夏秋季节,每两到三周深度灌溉一次就足够了. 在靠近海岸的温和地区或土壤重的地方,每月浇水一次就足够了. 春天需要较少的灌溉. 在冬季,单是降雨就足够了. 在极其干旱的年份,你可以在适当的时候进行冷季灌溉,以补充雨水. 

The ground in a large circumference (approx 18′) around the sprinkler is wet after several hours of running the sprinkler. You can set these sprinklers up with several on a long line, or simply relocate the single sprinkler to water a larger area.

Mulching: 你可以在“建立期”中继续上述覆盖计划.随着植物的成熟, 树木和灌木将开始提供它们自己的落叶覆盖物, flower parts, 和其他植物“垃圾”.“这对植物有好处,为益虫、鸟类和其他物种提供了栖息地. 就覆盖物而言,充分发展的本地景观是自我维持的.

Note the plants, properly spaced, 卵石和岩石的自然效果, 裸露的地面上覆盖着有机覆盖物,前景是小型洒水车(塑料立管). 照片中央附近开着白色花朵的植物是Ceanothus的爆米花.’

Fertilizer: 一个成熟的本地植物花园很少或不需要补充植物食物. 如果你想增加土壤的强度,提供健康的生长和季节性的开花, 使用较轻的强度, all-purpose organic fertilizer in fall and again in late spring. 雨水将把植物的养分渗入土壤.

鹿草, 作为一个可持续种植的例子,成熟时需要很少或不需要肥料.

Pruning: 随着时间的推移,你的花园的外观将显著改善与艺术修剪. 另一方面,我们也见过一些被不熟练的黑客破坏的景观.

你可以通过砍掉树枝来指导树木未来的生长, and those that are crossing and those that are redundant (parallel). As shrubs mature, you can expose their beautiful stems and bark (i.e.; manzanitas) by lifting up their canopies, pruning lower branches and thinning their centers. Faster growing shrubs like ceanothus and coffeeberry can be tip-pruned after flowering (the way a deer would browse) to encourage healthy new growth and fresh flowers every spring. 屏风或篱笆植物可以被塑造, 灌木和地被植物可以回生,这样它们就不会相互生长, 低生长的植物可以保持到理想的高度. 如鼠尾草的木质半灌木, buckwheat, 而沿海向日葵将受益于每年秋季初的修剪. 像其他多年生植物, 加州樱草开花后,经过修剪,会恢复青春.

枯木应随时清除. 如果可能的话,把枯枝砍回健康的木头. 以防疾病传播, 你应该用10%的漂白剂浸泡或擦拭剪刀和锯子,对它们进行消毒, (9份水和1份漂白剂)之间的切割.

随着曼扎尼塔的成熟, 主人修剪了下面的树枝,露出可爱的树皮和结构. 而不是等待多年, 然后砍大树枝, (用锯子留下难看的疤痕), 用修枝剪剪小树枝. 这样你就可以在很长一段时间内塑造植物.

故障排除:

如果你种植本地马利筋(Asclepias spp.)你会吸引黑脉金斑蝶. 不要把毛虫误认为植物害虫. 它们会以马利筋为食,然后化蛹成美丽的蝴蝶. 这就是栖息地园艺的意义所在.

一般来说,本地植物在景观中明显不受病虫害的侵袭. Most potential problems can be averted by good watering practices. 根腐病是由涝渍条件引起的, 在夏季出现在根区.

随着种植的成熟, gophers, rabbits, 地松鼠和其他植物捕食者 become less of a problem, 因为这些植物通常具有更强的抵抗力. 除非损害很大, deer and other browsing animals are more a delight than a problem; in our urbanized world they appreciate your Ceanothus as much as you do.

以植物为食的昆虫可以用印楝油和杀虫皂等天然产品加以控制. 避免使用化学喷雾, 只要有可能, because they upset nature’s balance and kill beneficial insects as well. 使用所有喷雾剂时,请始终遵循制造商标签上的说明.

The problem of weeds diminishes over time as well as their seed bank depletes and conditions are less favorable. 原生植物的覆盖物能自我维持, 如上所述, 覆盖层将有助于减少杂草的竞争.

特殊情况

Extreme Sun: 很明显,你必须选择能够在当地条件下生长的植物. In harsh, bright, dry, 有风的情况下, you can provide temporary protection on the south side of each plant by building a little shade fence using shade cloth, 或者在地上插一片扇形棕榈叶, 或者用香蒲叶编织一个小垫子. Be creative. 这种全新的植物最容易被晒伤、烘烤或干燥. Plant in the cool season or on cool days to reduce initial stress.

Deep Shade: 就像在《365bet娱乐网址》中,你必须选择正确的植物. Shade under trees is much different than shade from buildings. 在树木的漫射光下更容易维持植物. 来自建筑物的浓密阴影可能会导致植物向光倾斜,长得细长. Water management is critical, as the area will not dry out very fast. 像粉蚧这样的昆虫对空气流通不良地区的脆弱植物来说是个问题. 

Slopes: 在斜坡上安装通常是困难的,特别是在切坡或夯实的填方. 植物健康生长的条件并不存在. 选择艰难的植物. Follow the instructions above for site prep, soil prep and planting. 小体积(小型喷灌)灌溉是最好的渗透和最小到零径流. 随着整个种植的成熟,维护变得更容易,并且可以作为一个单元来管理, 而不是在一个地方有很多不同的植物. 


Wet Areas: 保持湿润的土壤是有区别的, boggy, wet or stagnant and a stream bank with flowing water conditions. As in the other special situations, you have to choose the right plants. In many cases, the wet area is intended to serve as a bioswale. The plants will purify the run-off that flows through them by utilizing the nitrogen and other elements, 抓住小碎片. 生态沼泽、沼泽和溪流植物很快成为极其重要的栖息地. 任何剧烈的改变,如修剪或清除淤泥,都会暂时破坏栖息地. 这个系统非常有弹性,植物会重新长出来. If drastic maintenance procedures are to be done during the growing season, 你应该一次做一个部分, and give each section time to grow back before doing the next. 这样,有益的昆虫和其他野生动物物种就不会从这个地方被消灭.

长远的考虑

植物的寿命: 在任何成熟的领域, 你将需要移除或替换一些植物,因为它们死亡或生长的黄金时间. Many of the fast growing subshrubs and herbaceous perennial plants give a good show for the first 5 or 10 years. 因为它们开始变老变木了, 它们可以被修剪, 覆盖和施肥(见上文),最后取出. 通常到那个时候, 它们将完成快速填充的目的, color, 屏蔽或地面覆盖, 其他长寿的植物也会加入进来. 大概是15 - 20岁, 改变整体主题, after pruning, 塑造和移除植物,并在成熟的景观中寻找新的机会. It is likely that shade will be an issue to address in an older landscape.

This attractive native landscape will be beautiful for many years. 由于空间较小,植株多为矮秆品种. 它们被适当地隔开了. 成熟的树木仍在原来的景观中. 当地的植物取代了原来的草坪.

更换植物或添加新植物: 如果一棵植物死了,或者你出于某种原因移走了一些植物,你很容易在它们的地方种上新的植物. 雨季是理想的时间, 并按照上述“种植”的指引, you will have no problem establishing new plants in a mature garden. 

提供荫凉的成熟植物: 因为树木和灌木长得很大, you will have new opportunities for planting in their shade zone. 但没有必要做得过火. Part of the unique beauty of a native plant garden is its simplicity. Leaf mulch and bare earth are valuable components for backyard habitat. 在成熟植物形成的阴凉处,你可以放一些珊瑚铃、草、鸢尾、醋栗或蕨类植物. 你不需要走遍所有地方. 让阴影和树枝图案在一些选择的阴影植物或一对有趣的岩石中发挥.

Rewards

真实性、有效性、可持续性: 一个维护良好的本土花园具有自然景观的外观和感觉, 集中和倾向于一个相对小的空间. 花园的功能是一个整体,而不是独立部分的集合. 植物开始一起生长以提供互惠互利. 有些开始结出种子,在附近发芽,增加了自然的外观和功能. The garden is not of artificial design, intent nor constitution. Native plants, properly used and tended in the landscape provide an authentic, 为每个人提供高效和可持续的体验. In more ways than one, a native plant garden is “regenerative.” It will self-sustain and some plants will reproduce on site, 但更重要的是, 在不同的季节里,您将通过自己在花园中的体验“重生”.

Habitat Garden: Taking care of a native garden to attract birds and other wildlife species requires that you maintain it to your standards of beauty, 不需要过多的(人为的)投入. Follow the guidelines discussed above to keep an attractive, healthy garden… but leave a little “wildness” for our fellow mortals (John Muir’s affectionate term for wildlife). 它们需要水源、食物(浆果、种子、花蜜、幼虫、蠕虫、昆虫等).), cover (canopy, branches, safe sites) and nesting materials. 因为本讨论中概述的任务既是季节性的,而且影响很低, 在这个过程中,你会真正地观察野生动物, rather than chasing it away with noisy machinery and toxic chemicals.

penston鲜艳的管状花对蜂鸟很有吸引力.

Engagement:

规划和种植一个本土花园本身就是一件大事, 令人满意的努力, 但没有什么能取代在花园里享受时光. 典型的“家务”浇水, weeding, pruning, 在任何特定的季节,照顾植物实际上都需要更多的时间与地方接触.

You can forget the idea of “Gotta get this job done, so I can go play”. 这反映了草坪和花坛的旧时代. 在自然花园的户外时光让你有机会看到所有大自然的模式, 近距离亲身体验, 也在你的栖息地. 而工作本身……不知为何似乎更像玩耍.

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